Confused about all the terms you hear associated with CBD? Don’t be! We’ve assembled a convenient glossary of some of the most popular terms used.
Antioxidant: Compounds that inhibit oxidative stress in your body caused by highly reactive molecules know as free radicals.
Biphasic: Meaning two phases, low and high doses of the same substance can have opposite effects. CBD is biphasic and will have energy and focus effects at low to moderate doses and will have a sedative effect with higher doses.
CB1 Receptor in the Brain: Responsible for pain and anxiety relief, mood stabilization, feeling pleasure. Activated by AEA natural cannabinoid and CBD.
CB2 Receptor in the Brain: Responsible for regeneration of new nerve cells (neuroplasticity) throughout life. Activated by 2Ag and CBD.
CB1 and CB2 Receptors’ Role Outside the Brain: Immune activators focused on tempering immune response by reducing inflammatory responses and reducing swelling. Activated by AEA and 2Ag natural cannabinoids and CBD.
Crystal Isolate: The process starts with biomass which is the hemp plant picked and dried. From there crude oil is created that looks like black thick oil. Another process takes it to distillate that looks like honey. Then CBD is extracted and separated into a crystal form that contains pure CBD.
Delivery Methods: There are different ways to consume CBD or cannabis:
- Sublingual and mucosal (under your tongue)
- Transdermal – Apply to skin and passes through lipid layer into the blood stream
- Topical – Apply to skin and stays within the lipid layer
- Inhalation – Vaping into the lungs
Endocannabinoids: Anandamide (AEA) and 2AG are endogenous cannabinoids naturally produced by the body. They act as neurotransmitters in the brain and produce an anti-inflammatory response in the immune system.
Endocannabinoid system (ECS): A biological system in both humans and mammals whose main purpose is to maintain balance (homeostasis) in the body through a network of neurotransmitters, receptors and enzymes.
Entourage effect: Means cannabinoids such as THC and CBD along with all the other compounds including terpenes are meant to work together to provide a whole plant approach or also known as full spectrum. Difficult to control dosing because each plant is different. Could also test positive for THC.
Enzymes: Protein molecules in cells that speed up the rate of chemical reactions that take place within cells. They are highly selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction.
Farm Bill: December 12,2018, Congress passed the 2018 Farm Bill which was signed by President Trump legalizing Hemp and CBD at the federal level. To be compliant, the following guidelines are required: 1) Registered with a farm under the 2018 farm act, 2) THC levels cannot exceed .3%, 3) FDA compliant regarding medical claims, 4) Certificate of analysis by third-party certified lab testing potency, microbes, pesticides and heavy metals; 5) Meet state guidelines, 6) Meet USDA guidelines.
Flavonoids: Compounds found in flowers, fruits, vegetables and plants including hemp and cannabis. They contribute to the aroma, pigmentation and flavor.
Free Radicals: Unstable molecules that damage cells in the body. They are produced from normal body functions and external sources like UV rays, tobacco smoke, and pesticides are some examples. They scavenge the body causing damage to cells, proteins, and DNA.
Homeostasis: Natural state of balance in the body. Maintaining homeostasis is a dynamic process that involves all of the body’s systems.
Neurotransmitter: Endogenous chemicals that enables neurotransmission between nerve cells to another “target “neuron, muscle or gland cell. They will bind to receptors of the receiving cell that are specific for that neurotransmitter.
Oxidative stress: An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body and is thought to be the underlying cause of many diseases and illnesses.
Phytocannabinoids: Cannabinoids produced by the hemp and cannabis plant. Examples would be Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinol (CBN), Cannabigerol (CBG) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Receptors: Assembly of several proteins in a cell membrane that a molecule can bind to. Example would be neurotransmitters for discussion purpose.
Terpenes: Compounds found in the oil of fruits, vegetables and plants including CBD and cannabis. They are responsible for the flavor and smell and are believed to have health benefits.