Broad spectrum and full spectrum CBD products are distillates from the hemp plant. Full spectrum CBD contains everything in the plant (including the legal limit of THC). Broad spectrum CBD is when the THC is taken out. However, it can still contain trace amounts of THC that will build up over time (since it is a lipid molecule and stored in the body’ in fat cells) and could still trigger a positive drug test. Broad and full spectrum products are promoted as providing the numerous benefits of the additional plant-based compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes and other cannabinoids. This is called the “entourage effect.” However, CBD extracted from hemp has very low concentrations of all of these other compounds and they are unlikely to be enough to realize their benefits. It is important to check the certificate of analysis (COA) of these products to identify if the other compounds exist in high enough concentrations to have any beneficial effects. These benefits need to be weighed against the problem of having THC in it (either 0.3% or trace amounts) that could cause a positive test.

A distillate is the oil “distilled” out of the plant along with other compounds from the plant such as flavonoids and terpenes (which can give off an unpleasant taste or smell). Distillates contain THC—some have all the THC available in the plant and some only contain trace amounts. However, since distillates are oil-based, they are stored in fat molecules, where small amounts of THC can build up over time and cause a positive drug test. An isolate is when ONLY the CBD is extracted from the plant. This does involve a chemical process but ensures that there is no THC or any other plant compounds in the extract. Isolate is also flavorless and odorless, making it more pleasant to consume in drops or liquids.

Cannabidiol (or “CBD”) is one of several chemical compounds called cannabinoids.  CBD is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant CBD is non-intoxicating.
While both hemp and marijuana come from the same family of plants, cannabis, and both contain CBD, they have vastly different chemical compositions. Marijuana has more than 0.3% THC in it (typically 5-30%), the psychoactive substance that causes a “high.” Marijuana is not legal in all states and is a Schedule I drug according to the DEA.  Hemp has less than 0.3% THC in it and does not produce a “high.”  Hemp and hemp-derived products are legal in most states following the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill.
Nano CBD allows more CBD to be absorbed at a quicker rate than conventional CBD. Cannabinoids are fat-based compounds that are difficult to break down and take time to absorb into the body. According to research studies, absorption rates of conventional CBD are only about 6%. Nano CBD is a process that reduces CBD into nano-sized particles that increase the absorption rate, so less is needed to have the same effect. Additionally, nano CBD is a water-based product that bypasses the typical breakdown and absorption processes, reducing the impact to your GI system, especially the liver.
Some CBD products do contain THC. BioNan-X nano-amplified CBD products do not contain THC and undergo confirmatory third-party lab testing.

A recent pilot study demonstrated that patients won’t test positive for THC while using BioNan-X, because it contains “isolated” CBD without any THC. Additionally, BioNan-X CBD products are validated by third-party lab testing. However, it is possible to test positive with other companies’ CBD products that do have trace amounts of THC in them even if the THC is less than 0.3%.

Unlike THC, which is the major active ingredient in marijuana, our hemp-derived, THC-free CBD does not give the user a “high” or euphoric feeling like marijuana.
Signed by President Trump on December 26, 2018, the 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp-derived CBD at the federal level by removing it from the list of Schedule 1 controlled substances as long as it does not contain more than 0.3% THC. Compliance with the Farm Bill requires registration and licensing at the state level. While the majority of states have legalized CBD, it is not fully legal in all 50 states.
In May 2019, the TSA announced that airline passengers can now travel with hemp-derived CBD as long as it is produced within regulations defined under the Farm Bill 2018.
Depending on the type of product and delivery method, there are different ways to consume CBD. These include: 1) oral absorption or ingestion, 2) topical or transdermal application to the skin, and 3) inhalation.
Topical creams have a local effect where they are placed, such as a corticosteroid cream for skin irritation. Transdermal creams are absorbed through the skin and enter the blood stream, having an effect elsewhere on the body. Transdermal applications may be preferred since they tend to have lower adverse reactions and interactions with other medications.
Depending on dosage and the type of medication and CBD the patient is taking, drug interactions are possible. Experts generally agree that the risk of having a serious drug interaction may be lower if you take your medications and CBD at different times of the day. Additionally, because nano-CBD provides an effect with a lower dose of CBD, it reduces the risk of interactions (versus conventional CBD which requires consumption of greater amounts to have the same effect).